Battle of Uhud and Conquest of Mecca
War of Uhud
On 7th of Shawwal, a battle happened between Meccans and Muslims within the valley north of mount Uhud. The Qurayshi Meccans, led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, commanded a military of three thousand men toward Muhammad's stronghold in Medina. After the death of Amr ibn Hishām in Battle of Badr, Abu Sufyan become the cheif of Meccan's Army.
Although outnumbered, the Muslims gained the first initiative and made the Meccan lines back, thus leaving much of the Meccan camp unprotected. When the battle looked to be only one step away from a decisive Muslim victory, a big mistake was committed by an area of the Muslim army, which altered the result of the battle.
Setback of Muslims
A group of Muslims archer who were assigned to their posts ny Hazrat Muhmmad left and start despoiling the camps of Meccans. Meecans war veteran Khalid Bin Waleed took advantage of this and attacked them. Muslims faced a lot of damage through and this became the main reason of their setback. Hazrat Muhmmad also get injured along with many Muslims. Muslims withdrawed from the battle.
Withdrawal of Abdallah ibn Ubayy
A group of roughly 1,000 Muslim men began northward from Madinah toward Mount Uhud. Early subsequent morning, they took an edge on the lower slopes of Capitol Hill of Uhud. Shortly before the battle commenced, 'Abdallah ibn Ubayy, chief of the Khazraj, in conjunction with 300 other men, withdrew their support for Muhammad and returned to Medina, with reports suggesting Ibn Ubayy's discontent with the plan to debouch from Medina to satisfy the Meccans.Ibn Ubayy and his followers would later receive censure within the Qur'an for this act.
What ye suffered on the day the 2 armies met, was with the leave of Allah, so as that He might test the believers. And so as that He might test the Hypocrites also, these were told: "Come, fight within the way of Allah, or (at least) drive (the foe from your city)." They said: "Had we known the way to fight, we should always certainly have followed you." They were that day nearer to Disbelief than to Faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts but Allah hath full knowledge of all they conceal. (They are) those that say, of their brethren slain, while they themselves sit (at ease): "If only that they had listened to us they might not are slain." Say: "Avert death from your own selves, if ye speak the reality ."
Qur'an, Surah 3 (Al Imran), Ayah 166–168
Conquest of Makkah
The conquest of Makkah happened during the spiritual month of Ramadan (8th year of Hijri). This is one of the most significant event in the history of Islam. Due to this conquest, Makkah and it's nearby areas were cleaned of idols along with the hearts of Quraysh.
Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah
This was the ten year truce signed by Quraysh and the Muslims of Madina in the month of Dhul Qaddah. Despite of this contract, Quraysh broke the peace as they were allies of Bani Bakr and they attached the tribe of Bani Khuzah. When Bani Khuzah told Hazrat Muhmmad about the attack, he immediately ordered his companions to prepare for warfare.
Journey to Mecca
On 10th of Ramadan, Hazrat Muhmmad along with his army of ten thousand Muslims advanced towards Makkah. This was the biggest army of Muslims at that time. Al Bukhari narrated on the authority of Hazrat Abbas (RA)
"Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) travelled in the month of Ramadan and he fasted till he reached (a place called) 'Usfan’, then he asked for a tumbler of water and drank it by the daytime so that the people might see him. He broke his fast till he reached Makkah."
Hazrat Muhmmad also instructed his army not to cause any harm to someone only if they resisted us from entering in Makkah. He also ordered the commanders of his army, only to fight those who tried to stop them.
Entrance of Muslims in Mecca
Muslims entered the city of Mecca peacefully without any shed of blood. There were four routes of entering in Makkah so Muhmmad divided his army into four groups. In this way, they could enter from each way. All three entries of Muslims were bloodless except the fourth one where the commander of Muslim army was Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed. Ikrimah and Sufwan gathered some fighters and blocked them from entering Makkah but after the loss of twelve men of Quraysh, they surrendered. Two warriors of Muslims were lost.
Hazrat Muhmmad entered Makkah on his camel Al Kaswa and Hazrat Usama ibn Zaid was sitting behind him. He recited surah Al Fatah, when he entered Makkah. It was narrated from Hazrat Ayesha (RA)
“During the year of the Conquest (of Makkah), the Prophet (S.A.W.) entered Makkah through Kada which was at the upper part of Makkah.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4290)
Conquest of Mecca according to Quran
The historical conquest of Makkah is narrated in the Holy book Quran as,
“When comes the Help of Allah [to you, O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) against your enemies] and the conquest (of Makkah), And you see that the people enter Allah's religion (Islam) in crowds, So glorify the Praises of your Lord, and ask for His Forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and forgives. (Surah An-Nasr 110:1-3)