Muhammad (SAW) in Madina : Battle of Badr
After reaching Madina, one of the first things our Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did was drafting a document which is known as Constitution of Medina. According to this, established a kind of alliance or federation” between the eight tribes of Madina and emigrants from Makkah. Rights and duties of all the citizens and relationships amongst different communities were specified in this document. These communities also includes the Muslims community and also the non Muslim especially Jews and other "People of the Book".
Role as a Political Leader
Hazrat Muhmmad played his role in Madina as a political leader and established a Mosque for the offering of prayers as well as a place for military planning against the disbelievers of Allah. He began to lead many skirmishes around Makkah. Hazrat Muhmmad once prayed to Allah,
“Oh God, here come the Quraysh in their vanity and pride, contending with Thee and calling Thy apostle a liar. O God, grant the help which Thou didst promise me. Destroy them this morning!” (Guillaume, p. 297).
Economic Issues in Madina
Another challenge that our Holy Prophet Muhmmad faced was the economic issue in Madina. All the emigrants Muslims were from Makkah. They left their wealths, trade, home in Makkah just to escape from the brutality and cruel behaviour of Quraysh. They did it for the sake of Allah. Now it was a huge challenge for Muhmmad to resolve their economic issue. He made a relationship of brotherhood between Ansaar and Muhajren (emigrants of Makkah). Ansar shared their wealth and trade with their brothers Muhajreen, so in this way Muhmmad (PBUH) solved a great problem with good wisdom. It is narrated from Ibn Is-haq that when Prophet established a relationship of brotherhood between Muhajren and Ansar he said to them,
“Be brothers for the sake of Allah.”
Accord of Madina
Now Hazrat Muhmmad had to deal with the new reality of Madina. In addition to Muslims, Christians, Jews and some other groups of hypocrites, city also consisted of tribes of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj. Muslims itself were divided into two groups, Muhajirun and Ansar. Despite of these groupings and diversity, our Holy Prophet did his best to establish a state on the basis of equality, freedom and solidarity. So an historical step was taken and accord of Madina came into being. According to this agreement, All the citizens had equal rights without any boundaries of religion, race or gender. All the citizens were bounded to protect their city and it was their duty to aid and help each other. Ibn Is-haq also reported,
“The Messenger of God concluded an agreement between the Muhajirun and Ansar in which he made a treaty with the Jews, confirmed them in their religion and possessions and gave them certain duties and rights.”
Battle of Badr
Hazrat Muhmmad took interest in capturing a carvan of Makkah after his migration to Madina. This carvan was returning from Levant led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb to Madina having trade money. Hazrat Muhmmad planned to capture it thus it would be a repayment for emigrants of Makkah. Hazrat Muhmmad gathered a small army with him to attack the carvan. Abu Sufyan, learning the plan of Hazrat Muhmmad, changed his path and took a longer route to Makkah. He also sent a message to Makkah about the attack from Muhmmad. Abu Jahl commanded an army of one thousand soldiers to fight with Muhmmad. They encamped at the sand dune of Udwatul Quswa.
Muhammad was ready to gather a military of 313-317 men. Sources vary upon the precise number, but the widely accepted number is 313. The army had 82 Muhajirun, 61 solidiers from the tribe Aws and there were 170 men from Khazraj. They weren't well-equipped for a serious conflict nor prepared. They entire army of Hazrat Muhammad had two horses and 70 camels. This means there was one camel for two to three man. Our Holy Prophet also shared a camel with Ali ibn Abu Talib and Marthad ibn Abi Marthad al-Ghanawi. Battle of Badr was the first big engagement between the Muslims and Quraysh of Makkah. Its is narrated in Holy Quran as,
Indeed there was a sign for you in the two hosts (which) met together in encounter; one party fighting in the way of Allah and the other unbelieving, whom they saw twice as many as themselves with the sight of the eye and Allah strengthens with His aid whom He pleases; most surely there is a lesson in this for those who have sight.[3:13]
Battle started with their traditional way, duels of soldiers from both sides charged. Then both armies clashed upon each other. Muslims fought fearless as they knew that Allah was on their side. They killed many of the well known leaders of Quraysh and destroyed the lines of Meccan. Allah said in Quran,
"O Messenger of Allah! Proceed where Allah directs you to, for we are with you. We will not say as the Children of Israel said to Musa: "Go you and your Lord and fight and we will stay here;" rather we shall say: "Go you and your Lord and fight and we will fight along with you." By Allah! If you were to take us to Birk al-Ghimad, we will still fight resolutely with you against its defenders until you gained it."
It was a momentous victory for the Muslim community. It was considered as a miracle as they had defeated an army of 1000 well trained fighters with just 313 men. This showed their spirit and believe in Allah Almighty. Victory at Badr boosted the morale of Muslims and also helped them economically as they gathered huge amount of ( Mal e Ghanemat).